may appear to have a two-tiered canopy (Figure 16). The culprit was Asian scale, an insect-bred disease that was brought to Miami from Asia in the early 1990s. Sapsuckers and other related scales are at risk from birds and beneficial predators like ladybugs. One scale will not hurt a palm tree but as they multiply, the sheer numbers can slowly kill the palm tree. Algae, lichens and moss often form green or grey, powdery or mossy, crusty growths on the stems, branches and trunks of trees and shrubs. Also available is the EDIS document, “Palm Problems: Field and Laboratory Diagnosis.” If you think a palm might be affected, contact a professional arborist. After moving about for a short time, they insert their mouthparts into the plant, feeding on the sap. Palms that produce heavy clusters of fruit within the crown (e.g., Phoenix dactylifera, Livistona chinensis, etc.) This is caused by the weight of the fruit stalks, each of which can weigh over 100 pounds, forcing the leaves that … Diseases affect all parts of the palm tree; the roots, stem, leaves and fruit. NOTE: There are other different types of scale and some scale insects are host specific, such as rose scale, white palm scale, gum tree scale and tea scale (camellias). Tree Bark “Fungus” Identification and Treatment Algae, moss and lichens are the three main types of green growth that can appear on tree branches and trunks. If the symptom is caused from cold injury, drench the bud area with copper-containing fungicide* and apply Manganese spikes. It also affects older palm trees that grow slowly. The hard scale lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant. This step is for planting a new palm tree or replacing an existing palm tree. Diamond scale can occur on hybrids of the California fan palm with the Mexican fan palm, and the incidence and severity usually are proportional to the amount of California fan palm in the hybrid. Symptoms and Diagnosis. Top Palm Tree Problems. They are so tiny that finding the problem before the plant is overrun is almost impossible. The spores of the fungus are always present where palms are grown, but it needs a wound or a very stressed plant to infect the plant. Avoid many of these problems by following the recommended cultural practices that help keep plants healthy and vigorous. Most people in Kigoma and its neighbouring regions use the crude, red palm oil for cooking. Others attack a variety of hosts such as white wax scale occurring on gardenias and citrus; and cottony cushion scale occurring on figs, rose, magnolias, grevilleas and citrus. Deforestation affects the people and animals where trees are cut, as well as the wider world. I you find white scale on your sago palm, prune the plant and treat with horticultural oils. A: Sabal palms, which are more correctly called sabal palmettoes, are well known to be affected by scale. Like all trees, palm trees are susceptible to insect infestations, though these attacks remain unnoticed due the height of their crown or fronds. Diamond scale has not been observed on pure Mexican fan palm or any other palm species in California. Identify ‘crawlers’. Although it initially was believed that the … Palm trees grown in the landscape appear carefree, but they are susceptible to many diseases, insects and nutritional problems. An infestation of scales can ruin the appearance of the sago palm, turning the leaves yellow. Seed Change trees tend to yield between 21 and 28 litre every year. Scale insects vary dramatically in appearance, from very small organisms (1–2 mm) that grow beneath wax covers (some shaped like oysters, others like mussel shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 mm), to animals covered with mealy wax. The disease seemed to be dormant for many years until it was identified again in 1989 on Phoenix palms. Some palms show resistance to their biotic pathogens and to conditions which cause abiotic disease, but all palms are susceptible to mismanagement of water, the extremes of pruning and poor planting practices. They suck plant juices and can cause plants to lose vigor. The good news is that identifying the cause is quite simple, allowing you to fix the problem and prevent your Areca Palm getting brown tips in the future. Problems Scales: Scale insects are small, piercing-sucking insects that often go unnoticed on indoor plants. Though obscured by their height, damage can be caused by a number of insect species: aphids, borers, caterpillars, mites, sand scales. Palm leaf scales damage the palm tree by inserting a straw like appendage into the palm tree and sucking the fluids out. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. In palms with a canopy above eye level, this first symptom is often missed. The thick waxy shell they secrete prevents insecticides from being very effective. How each problem affects individual trees, however, will vary depending on the tree's exact species, overall health and the extent of the difficulties it faces. However, Mexican Fan Palm trees can be … The pygmy date palm is an Asian native from Vietnam and China. The Areca Palm (Dypsis lutescens) is a wonderful choice of indoor palm tree, but it does tend to be prone to getting brown tips on the leaves. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. These scales look more like lumps or bumps on twigs and branches, and can be mistaken for buds on the branch. Several different types of scale insects attack palms. SCALE INSECTS are the usual cause of sweet, sticky drippage (honey-dew) from trees that collects on surfaces below. Crawlers are often not the same color as the adults of the species. They are both common and damaging to palms and are very difficult to kill. (NOLA.com|The Times-Picayune archive) Question: My sago palms have white scale under their fronds. The disease is transmitted solely by the haplaxius crudus, a tiny winged insect sometimes called the American palm cixiid or, generically, a … Gliocladium vermoeseni is the fungus that causes pink rot. It is caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora which causes the heart fronds of a palm tree to wilt and die. If severe, the spear leaf will easily pull from the bud. For this reason, I think spraying the palmettoes with horticultural oil is the best control. Scales hatch from eggs. The insects have a protective waxy armor, which is white to yellow. All look similar at first glance but have a few subtle distinctions. The young, called crawlers, are small (about 1/10 inch) and soft bodied and move about on the plant and onto other plants. They have a bit more personality, bending and leaning in certain directions. Adult females are almost always immobile (apart from mealybugs) and permanently attached to the plant on which they are feeding. APHIDS are often blamed, and sometimes contribute to the honeydew, but by far the most copious honeydew production is by soft scale insects described below. When planting a new palm tree it is wise to plant the palm tree only deep enough to cover the root ball of the tree (the circular ball of roots at the bottom of the tree). The first symptom is discoloration of the spear leaf and wilting/discoloration of the next youngest leaf. It's now adapted to other areas of the world, including some regions of the United States, where winters are mild and usually frost-free. In other words, if a tropical palm tree grown in the bright, warm and humid outdoor climate of Florida gets relocated to a dimly lit, stagnating, warm and dry climate in a Milwaukee, Wisconsin mall, it will be stressed and very likely to develop a scale insect infestation. A new palm diagnostic key can help people determine what’s going on with potentially affected trees. Step 2: You can see by the pictures I've included of actual palm trees that they don't always stand straight up, as a pine tree or an oak would. Some types can infest many different plants. Different problems are common among a variety of palm trees. One excellent example of the Eriococcidae is the wooly beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga. After th… You can do the maths! Red palm oil is sold for around US$0.90/L. There is strong demand for palm oil right here; so small-scale farmers across the region sell their products locally. Source: John Tann. The good news is that a naturally occurring predatory wasp loves to lay eggs in scale, which kills the pests. The adult forms can be attached to leaves, petioles, and stems. In most cases, they are able to move short distances (but rarely do) and produ… Despite its name, the tree can grow up to 12 feet, topped with a frond of three-foot leaves. While this can worry gardeners, these growths are harmless, although may occasionally indicate a lack of vigour in the affected plant. Once the population has bloomed, all parts of your plant can be infected and the pests presence is obvious. Some 250 million people living in forest and savannah areas depend on … Cottony cushion scales, for example, are off-white but the crawlers are orange. The young scales, called crawlers, have legs and will move very slowly, or are blown by the wind, to a spot on a plant that they like. The quickest way to do this is to spray Manganese Sulfate into the crown of the palm, and then put spikes around the root ball.